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Fake News  

Last Updated: Mar 29, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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What is "fake?"

  1. It can't be verified or found on reputable sites
  2. Makes an emotional appeal
  3. Authors are not experts
  4. Fake news links back to fake or disreputable sites


Satire is a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humorironyexaggeration or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles. A writer in a satire uses fictional characters, which stand for real people, to expose and condemn their corruption.



How do you know?  Is a nonpartisan, nonprofit “consumer advocate” for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics. is a project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. The APPC was established by publisher and philanthropist Walter Annenberg to create a community of scholars within the University of Pennsylvania that would address public policy issues at the local, state and federal levels.

 How to spot fake news

  • Consider the source
    • Is it a credible author with expertise in the field?
    • Be prepared to dig a little deeper into the credntials of the author and verify that expertise, and check for bias that could undermine credibility 
    • Is it a credible publication with ediotiral oversight?
  • Read beyond the headline
    • Read past the "shocking headline" to more fully evaluate the argument and the sources of the information
  • What is the support?
    • Are there other organizations or authorities cited? Are they supportive of the information? Is the source endorsed by other credible organization?
  • Check your own bias
    • Are you more apt to believe a source because it reflects your own personal bias? Be prepared to double-check the source even more rigorously to make sure you are not endorsing or sharing inaccurate information
  • Consult experts

The Evolution of News and Strategies to Evaluate and Share


Where does fake news come from?

There are financial incentives!

Shane, S. From Headline to Photograph, Jan. 18, 2017. New York Times.

Shane earned over $100,000 in advertising revenue from a completely bogus story, on his fake site.

People from other nations are earning money from fake news as well. This is the story of a teenager from Macedonia who is cashing in on click bait revenue from his fake site.



Creative Commons

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Thanks to Indiana University East Library for some of the content on this page


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